Search My Notes

There are many pages of posts on many subjects, and only a few show on this main page. Search for the subjects that you are interested in.

Topics covered in here tend toward Gadgetry, Weapons, Books, Tools, and a lot of other things that have captured my interest.

Please note the "Linked From Here" tab on the results, which lists search results from sites I have linked to in my posts.

Articles base

Articlesbase is a free article directory where you can submit and find articles. You can publish your articles for free or find free content for your website, ezine, or newsletter.

There are excellent searchable articles on many subjects, from "Knife Throwing" in the Extreme Sports section to the details of earthquakes and the role of calcium in pregnancy.

You can submit your own articles, have them syndicated across the web, and reach the thousands of visitors eager to find free articles and free content for their web sites.

The left menu offers a wide list of articles categories such as art and entertainment, finance, education, health, hobbies, marketing, news, relationships, sports and fitness, etc. The site has a search box so you can quick find articles of interest and the layout is simple so you can browse around easily.

If you are a writer and you are looking for an opportunity to publish your work, this is the place to start. If you need information or articles, this is for you too.

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Absinthe and Flamethrowers

Book Cover

Absinthe and Flamethrowers is a blog as well as a book. If you have problems with the nanny state or "safety is everything" mentality, I can recommend both. They are a mix of philosophy and solid how-to articles, neither of which are particularly safe.

Gurstelle taps into two rich seams in modern society – contempt for the health and safety bullies, and a more general fear of technology. While he describes himself as a liberal and doesn't own a gun, he's with the libertarians on the issue of being allowed to make your own mistakes.

"For two decades and counting, we citizens of the land of the free and the home of the brave have happily traded freedom for every scrap of bogus safety dangled before us. Indeed, we have devoted prodigious energy to inventing threats that demand the sacrifice of liberty, privacy and even basic human dignity."

"Blowing threats out of proportion is, of course, the stock in trade of TV news, whether the menace in question is a summer rainstorm or the distressing stains revealed when an investigative reporter shines ultraviolet light on a freshly laundered bed sheet at an upscale hotel. But television reflects its viewers' attitudes as well as shaping them, and clearly there exists a very large audience receptive to the never-ending theme: Life is meant, ever and always, to be safe--and you're not safe."

"We live in the age of the lily-livered, where people make terrific efforts to remove all possible risks from their lives," he says.

"It becomes a fairly pallid, sterile experience. You certainly won't be hurt but you won't be creative. And it's especially true for children. Are they going to grow up to be so risk averse that they don't contribute anything?"

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Letterheady is a collection of the letterheads of such folks as good old Adolph, Nick Tesla, Al Einstein and Van Halen. Browsing and searching their collection is kind of interesting.

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About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment.
Josh Billings
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There, I Fixed It! -- the Website

"There, I Fixed It" is about Kludges. There are as many sources for the word Kludge as there are jury-rigged mailboxes in the mobile home parks of America. Whether the source of the word is Gaelic, German, or Naval Acronym, we know them when we see them, and on this web site, we celebrate these iconic images of mankind’s eternal struggle to hammer square pegs into round holes (with duct tape.)

Anytime anyone anywhere has used duct tape, zip-ties and bubble gum to hold something together with just enough tensile strength to not instantly kill everyone in the room…that’s a kludge. Whether it was to get your first car, which was older than you, to last another month or simply to avoid having to buy new headphones, almost everyone has kludged something. We just encourage taking photos for e-fame.

Epic Kludge Photo

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Book Reporter might be the best book site on the net.

Ever craved a good book and just not been inspired by anything you see? Or felt annoyed that you bought a book that was merely so-so? Or closed a book and JUST wanted to talk about it?

They know what this feels like. The Book Report Network aims to solve these reader dilemmas, with thoughtful book reviews, compelling features, in-depth author profiles and interviews, excerpts of the hottest new releases, upcoming books, literary games and contests, and more every week. Visit their websites and discover why since 1996 the Book Report Network has been the best place online to talk about your last great read --- and find your next one.

They keep track of the latest paperbacks and upcoming books.

Check out all the sites in this network:

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General Tools

General has been supplying high quality precision tools to hobbyists and professionals for more than 85 years. Their products are carried by most reputable retailers around the world, including Home Depot, Lowe’s and Ace Hardware, and have their own Ebay store. They are able to offer customers a full line of specialty tools and instruments unlike any other on the web.

You can download their catalogs:

Hand Tools: Size:
Plumbing Tools (pp. 5-20) 1.1 MB
Woodworking Tools (pp. 21-36) 1.0 MB
Machinist, Measuring & Precision Tools (pp.37-58) 1.3 MB
Screwdrivers (pp. 59-78) 2.9 MB
Specialty Tools (pp.79-112) 2.7 MB

Electronic Test Instruments: Size:
Temperature Instruments (pp. 113-135) 920 KB
Temperature, Humidity & Moisture Instruments (pp. 136-149) 500 KB
Weather, Agriculture & Water Instruments (pp. 150-162) 416 KB
Safety & Electrical Instruments (pp. 163-181) 578 KB
Time Instruments (pp. 182-190) 907 KB
Airflow & Industrial Instruments (pp. 191-212) 660 KB

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LEGOs for Growniups

The Brothers Brick is a LEGO blog for adult fans of LEGO. Though we started out back in 2005 featuring mainly minifigs, today we highlight the best LEGO creations of every type from builders around the world, including ever-popular LEGO Star Wars, steampunk, and mecha creations. You can also find the latest LEGO news, opinions, and reviews right here on The Brothers Brick.

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Davenport Auction Wrenches

The Wrenching News is a website for the sharing of information on all types of collectible wrenches; Old, Antique, Vintage, Farm, and Adjustable, with a heavy emphasis on auctions and some good links to other antique tool and wrench sites.

In their words:
"Old vintage and collectible farm and adjustable wrench news, information and discussion with message board, also wrenches and other tools for sale by Don 'Bus' Haury of Halstead, Kansas"

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The Montana Dinosaur trail

The Montana Dinosaur Trail, established in 2005, is a series of fifteen Dinosaur themed museums, state parks and other attractions that run through the state.

The fifteen organizations that make up the Dinosaur Trail are the following:

Two Medicine Dinosaur Center in Bynum, Montana is open year round 7 days a week except holidays and offers college credit programs. It is located on U.S. Highway 89 in downtown Bynum. 1-800-238-6873
Old Trail Museum, located at 823 North Main Street U.S. Highway 89 in Choteau, Montana, is open during part of the year and features fossils from the Two Medicine Formation. (406) 466-5332
Museum of the Rockies, 600 West Kagy Boulevard in Bozeman, is the Montana state official repository for federal and state paleontological collections. The museum is just south of the Montana State University-Bozeman campus and is open year round. (406) 994-DINO
Rudyard Depot Museum, located off U.S. Highway 2 at 4th Avenue NW in Rudyard, Montana, is a Museum of the Rockies affiliate. The Rudyard Depot Museum is open Memorial Day to Labor Day, 7 days a week, and in the winter by appointment. (406) 355-4322
Upper Musselshell Museum is located at 11 and 36 South Central Avenue in Harlowton, Montana and is open Memorial Day to Labor Day. (406) 632-5519
H. Earl Clack Memorial Museum, open year round, features information about the Wahkpa Chu'gn Buffalo Jump Site just north of the museum which is located on U.S. Highway 2 West and the museum is west of the Havre, Montana Holiday Village Mall. (406) 265-4000

Blaine County Museum is located at 501 Indiana Street just 4 blocks off U.S. Highway 2 in Chinook, Montana. This museum is open year round and free to the public. (406) 357-2590
Great Plains Dinosaur Museum and Field Station and the Phillips County Museum are next door to each other on U.S. Highway 2 in Malta, Montana. Great Plains is open May to September and by appointment (406) 654-5300 and the Phillips County Museum is open year round. (406) 654-1037
Garfield County Museum is located on U.S. Highway 200 in Jordan, Montana and features Cretaceous fossils from the Hell Creek Formation. The museum is open daily from June 1st to September 1st and is free to the public. (406) 557-2517
Fort Peck Field Station of Paleontology, 40 Deer Born Road Fort Peck, is open Monday through Friday from May to September and has seasonal hours from October through April. This field station is associated with the University of Montana Paleontology Department. (406) 526-3539
Fort Peck Interpretive Center and Museum is open daily from May to September and has seasonal hours from October to April and is located 1.5 miles east of the Fort Peck townsite on Lower Yellowstone Road. (406) 526-3493
Makoshika Dinosaur Museum, 111 West Bell Street in Glendive, is open Memorial Day Weekend to September 1st and in the winter by appointment. (406) 377-1637
Makoshika State Park, located 1.4 miles southeast of Glendive on Snyder Avenue, is part of the late Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation and is open year round with camping available. (406) 377-6256
Carter County Museum, 306 North Main Street (MT Highway 7) Ekalaka, is 35 miles south of Baker, Montana and U.S. Highway 12. This museum also features fossils from the Hell Creek Formation and is free and open year round. (406) 775-6886

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Dark Roasted Blend: Unforgettable Pictures

Dark Roasted Blend - is one of the favorite destinations on the web for all pictures weird and wonderful, updated daily. In-depth articles in many fascinating categories make DRB a highly visual online magazine, bringing you quality entertainment every time you open your feed reader or visit the site.

Started in November 2006 by Avi Abrams, it is now among the top 500 sites on Technorati, has more than 25,000 subscribers and welcomes approx. 50,000 daily unique visitors.

You have undoubtedly had some of these photos forwarded to you in the past

airplanes | animals | architecture | art | auto | boats | famous | cool ads | funny pics | food | futurism | gadgets | history | japan
military | music | nature | photo | russia | sci-fi | signs | space | sports | steampunk | technology | trains | travel | vintage | weird

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Leveling Crosshairs: Reposted.

Quick and dirty:

I clamp my rifle in my gun vise. Forget about leveling it or anything like that because you don't have to. Loosen the ring caps so the scope tube will turn. Place a mirror at least 10-15 ft away and look through the scope. Turn the scope until the vertical crosshair splits the muzzle right in the middle. The scope and rifle are now in alignment. Once you do it its very easy. I've used this method for several years and it works fine.

Let me add this tip as well. If you can't see your bore (on smaller caliber rifles), Cut a Q-tip in half and put it in the muzzle. That will give you a nice white spot to see. Stick the stick end into the muzzle up to the cotton end just enough to hold it there.

Thanks and a salute to DDJ and t/c223encore at the Predatormaster Forums for this tip.

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Name that Tune #2

Or rather, find those lyrics!

SoundTrack Lyrics: Any Movie, Musical, TV, Cartoon! Original soundtrack song lyrics, song words, for any popular sound track, music soundtrack. You can find songs, text, review, script and song lyric for any movie, motion picture, cartoon, film, tv, musical, or score. You can browse or search alphabetically by soundtrack title or artist name.

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Makers Market

Makers Market: The world's neatest Craft Show.

In their words:

I welcome you to Makers Market, a curated marketplace of wonderful science, tech, and artistic creations created and sold directly by some of our favorite Makers from around the World.

A collaboration between the creators of MAKE and Boing Boing, Makers Market is an online marketplace bringing together our favorite entrepreneurial makers selling products and services directly to DIY enthusiasts – people with a thirst for life-enriching exploration through hands-on science and tech projects, risk-taking, art, sustainability, self-reliance, and hands-on learning. And true to our character, we’ll toss in a pinch of mischief-making from time to time for good measure.

You don’t need to create an account to peruse the site or purchase a product, but you’ll need one to nominate yourself as a seller or participate in discussions.

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WorldNetDaily is the news from the far right. It provides news and editorials, publishes letters to the editor, maintains forums, and conducts a daily poll. The editorial content has a diverse range of viewpoints, mainly right wing neoconservative perspective.

Besides providing articles authored by its own staff, the site links to news from other publications. Notable staff includes Jerusalem Bureau Chief Aaron Klein, White House Correspondent Lester Kinsolving, and Staff Writer Jerome Corsi.

The website's Commentary page features editorials from the site's founder, Joseph Farah and other social conservative authors such as Pat Buchanan, Ann Coulter, David Limbaugh, Bill O'Reilly, and Chuck Norris.

It also features weekly columns by libertarians Walter Williams, Vox Day, and Ilana Mercer, as well as liberal Bill Press and pro-life moderate Nat Hentoff.

The site also offers products for sale, advertising these products alongside related news stories. Typically these are products sold by its related book service, WND Book Service, by its publishing house, WND Books, or by its retail operation, ShopNetDaily.

The site also contains advertisements for WND's printed magazine, Whistleblower, and other companies. WND also operates the G2 Bulletin, a subscription-only website described as an "intelligence resource" for "insights into geo-political and geo-strategic developments."

Mission statement:

" Inc. is an independent news company dedicated to uncompromising journalism, seeking truth and justice and revitalizing the role of the free press as a guardian of liberty. We remain faithful to the traditional and central role of a free press in a free society – as a light exposing wrongdoing, corruption and abuse of power."

"We also seek to stimulate a free-and-open debate about the great moral and political ideas facing the world and to promote freedom and self-government by encouraging personal virtue and good character."

Indeed, is a fiercely independent newssite committed to hard-hitting investigative reporting of government waste, fraud and abuse's editorial policy reflects the old-fashioned notion that the principal role of the free press in a free society is to serve as a watchdog on government - to expose corruption, fraud, waste and abuse wherever and whenever it is found.

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Dodge Dakotas is, obviously, a place for Dak owners to gather and share information. Part of the site is for members only and generally only members can post, but there is a lot of good information and many links available to everyone.

Membership, if you want to go that route, is $2.50/month.

There are two Yahoo groups for Dak owners to discuss their rigs and get tech support. Both groups have some very knowledgeable people that are happy to answer questions:

dodgedakotaowners: This club is for any year of Dodge Dakota. Topics for discussion will be maintenance, problems, feedback from anyone, likes and dislikes, places to find parts, customization and any other DaimlerChrysler topic that might be of interest. Open to anyone interested. Give us your questions and answers.

dodgedakotaperformance: This club is a discussion club for performance, upgrades, troubleshooting, or just plain bragging about your Dodge Dakota. Post what you like, and talk what you like, just respect everyone.
A quick search will show a number of other Yahoo Dakota groups. Help yourself.

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137 Years of Popular Science Magazine Online

Popsci has partnered with Google to offer the entire 137-year archive for free browsing. Each issue appears just as it did at its original time of publication, complete with period advertisements. It's an amazing resource that beautifully encapsulates our ongoing fascination with the future, and science and technology's incredible potential to improve our lives. We hope you enjoy it as much as we do. In the future, we'll be adding more advanced features for searching and browsing, but for now, enter any keyword and dive in.

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Great Northern Steam Locomotives

The first steam locomotive in the Northwest, a balloon-stack American built by Smith & Jackson at Paterson, N.J. arrived in St. Paul in 1861 - on a Mississippi River steamboatr. It wasn't until the following June 28 that the little William Crooks chuffed out of St. Paul on its initial passenger run to the village of St. Anthony, now Minneapolis, signalizing the completion of the first 10 miles of railroad in Minnesota. The railroad was the St. Paul & Pacific, Great Northern's original predecessor line, and locomotive No. 1 carried the name of its chief engineer, Colonel William Crooks. Today the William Crooks, one of America's historic locomotives and a real pioneer in the opening of the West, can be seen on permanent display in the St. Paul Union Depot. This classic 4-4-0, with tender weighs 40 tons. Overall length is 51 feet. Diameter of the driving wheels is 63 inches.
CLASS A 6-WHEEL SWITCHER. Representing this class is No. 27, an A-9 with slide valves, Laird crossheads and Stephenson valve gear. Note the unusual driving wheel spacing and slope-backed tender with arch-bar trucks. Rogers built the first of GN's 0-6-0 yard goats in 1879, and hundreds of the breed from various builders were in use for the next 70 years. Small driving wheels provided high rail adhesion at limited speed, a desirable combination for yard work. Because of their small grate area, many of these locomotives burned coal and were hand-fired to operate on 160 pounds of saturated steam.
CLASS B AMERICAN. The 4-4-0 pictured here is a B-19, built by Brooks in 1882. Altogether Great Northern operated 21 sub-classes of the popular American or Standard type locomotive, which was used for switching as well as for freight and passenger service in earlier years. Its 63-inch drivers provided moderate speed combined with reasonably efficient tractive effort. Note, in the photo of engine No. 186, the four-bar crosshead guides, the roll bell, the chime whistle atop the steam dome and the road engine pilot. Contract with the photo of the William Crooks, an earlier generation American.
CLASS C 8-WHEEL SWITCHER. No. 818, a C-1, is representative of Great Northern's heaviest class of steam switcher. It had 19-inch piston valves, Walschaert valve gear, a Belpaire firebox and was oil-fired. The cab was bay window equipped for winter service. Driving wheels were 55 inches in diameter, and 250 pounds of superheated steam drove the 26x28-inch cylinders. The reverse gear was of the Ragonnet type. GN's 0-8-0 switchers were purchased new from Baldwin in 1918. No. 818 was one of the last of these durable engines to be written off when steam operation was terminated on the GN in 1958.
CLASS D MOGUL. This trim 2-6-0, a Brooks-bulit D-5, carried a St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba Railway number when it was delivered in 1896, although Great Northern already had taken over the Manitoba properties. No. 371 became No. 450 in 1899. Note the oil headlight, the single-stage air pump, hand reverse gear and square counterbalances on the driving wheels. The link and pin couplers, spoked pilot truck wheels and wooden cab and pilot were typical of the era. With its Laird crossheads and clean lines, this was a light freight engine of which to be pround in the "Gay Nineties."
CLASS E 10-WHEEL. Heavier trains and the demand for greater speed brought the high-stepping 10-wheeler into service. No. 1024, an E-14 was built by Baldwin in 1909 as a dual-purpose freight and passenger engine. Weighing 100 tons, it had 73-inch drivers and operated on 200 pounds of superheated steam. The hand reverse, alligator crossheads and Walschaert valve gear were typical of the period. Higher tender capacities for both coal and water led to the development of cast steel trucks of the equalizer type. Many of these soundly-designed 4-6-0's were later rebuilt to Pacific type locomotives.
CLASS F CONSOLIDATION. A contemporary of the 10-Wheel and a real work horse on the Great Northern was the 2-8-0 Consolidation. No. 1130 pictured here, was built by Cooke in 1901 and was classed by the GN as an F-7. Note the Stephenson valve gear, alligator crossheads and bay window on the cab. The tender carried 8,000 gallons of water and 19 tons of coal on arch-bar trucks. Working steam pressure was 165 pounds, superheated. The engine was equipped with power reverse gear. Ten of these inside admission engines were constructed in the F-7 class and numbered 1130 to 1139.
CLASS G 12-WHEEL. Brooks and Rogers built about 105 of these 4-8-0 engines for the Great Northern and its predecessor lines between 1891 and 1900. The builder's photo of Montana Central engine No. 100, a G-5 was made in 1899, the year before it became No. 800 on GN's roster. Experiments with cylinder volumes varied the diameter from 19 to 25 1/4 inches, but all G class engines had 32-inch stroke. Weight varied between 78 and 106 tons in the five sub-classes. This was a simple engine, using inside steam admission, and had piston valves and Stephenson valve gear.
CLASS H PACIFIC. In 1926-27, Great Northern constructed a number of 4-6-2's from engines which were originally E-14 10-wheelers built by Baldwin in 1906. Boilers were lengthened by adding a combustion chamber, the firebox was widened and a Delta trailing truck applied. These redesigned locomotives, including No. 1369 (pictured here), joined GN's H-5 class. The handsome Pacific served Great Northern well for many years, powering such name trains as the Gopher, Alexandrian and occassionally, the Oriental Limited. In later years these engines acquired Vanderbilt-type tenders, whose 12,000 gallon water and 5,800-gallon oil capacity permitted extended runs.
CLASS J PRARIE. As indicated by the name, Great Northern's Prarie type (2-6-2) locomotives were designed for fast freight service on more level districts. No. 1520, a J-1, exemplifies the class, built by Baldwin in 1906-07. These engines had 69-inch driving wheels and Belpaire fireboxes. Each engine weighed some 105 tons and exterted about 33,000 pounds of tractive force. In 1921 a program was instituted to convert the Praries into class H-6 Pacific type locomotives, but was well into the 1930's before the 150 engines in the J class had been modified or scrapped.
CLASS K ATLANTIC. Ten class K-1 Atlantics (1700-1709) were built by Baldwin in 1906 to provide Great Northern with a light, fast passenger locomotive. The 4-4-2's originally were constructed as balanced compounds having 15/25x26-inch cylinders, 73-inch driving wheels and operating on 200 pounds of saturated steam. Each engine weighed approximately 104 tons. Stephenson valve gear operated the piston valves. Tenders carried 8,000 gallons of water and 13 tons of coal. In later years, tehse engines were made simple (21x26 inch cylinders) and superheaters were applied. As late as 1925, the K-1 powered the Oriental Limited over level districts.
CLASS L MALLET-ARTICULATED. Great Northern's L class (2-6-6-2) locomotives, built by Baldwin in 1906-07 were true Mallets. No. 1810, shown here, was an L-2 of 1907 vintage. These engines had 20/31 x 30-inch cylinders and used 200 pounds of saturated steam (superheaters later were applied to 12 of the original 67 engines). They boasted slide valves and Walschaert valve gear, and weighed 144 tons. The calculated adhesion factor was 4.78 as a measure against wheel slippage. Between 1922 and 1925 the L class engines were converted in the railway's shops to O-5 and O-6 class Mikados (2-8-2 wheel arrangement).
CLASS M MALLET-ARTICULATED. Another true Mallet type as originally constructed by Baldwin in 1910 was Great Northern's M class 2-6-8-0, a compound with 23/35 x 32-inch cylinders. In 1926-27 these M-1 engines were rebuilt by GN as simple articulated M-2's, having 22/23.5 x 32-inch cylinders. Weight was approximately 201 tons and drivers were of 55-inch diameter. (An example is No. 1973 shown here.) The M-2 had a relatively short life, for these engines were destined to be rebuilt again by the GN in 1929-31 as O-7's (2-8-2). Finally, between 1944-46 most of the O-7's were converted to 0-8's.
CLASS N MALLET-ARTICULATED. The N class (2-8-8-0) engines originated with Baldwin in 1912, and were Mallet type (compound) having 28/42 x 32-inch cylinders. They operated on 210 pounds of superheated steam and weighed 225 tons. During 1925-27 the original N-1's, 25 in all, were made into simple articulated engines, modernized and reclassified as N-2's (see Photo of No. 2000). In 1940-41 new nickel steel boilers were applied, along with roller bearings and other modern features. Operating steam power was upped to 265 pounds, cylinders were 22/22x32 inches and weight of the engine was increased to 286 tons.
CLASS O MIKADO. The popular Mikado (2-8-2) was best exemplified on Great Northern by the celebrated O-8. The first three engines in this sub-class (3397-3399) were GN-built in 1932 and were the only locomotives constructed in the U.S. that year for domestic service. The O-8 was not only the heaviest Mikado type ever built, but the heaviest on axle of any steam locomotive, aggregating 81,250 pounds per axle. Originally designed steam pressure was 280 poinds, but this was later reduced to 250 pounds. Twenty-two rebuilt O-7's joined the O-8 class in 1944-1946.
CLASS P MOUNTAIN. The long-limbed, racy locomotives numbered from 2500 to 2527 on the GN were classed as P-2's, and were purchased from Baldwin in 1923 to speed up service on the crack Oriental Limited. The operation was so successful that it led to the inauguration, in 1929, of the first of the luxury Empire Builders. The P-2's then performed distinguished service powering the Fast Mail and the renowned Silk Extras. Note that this 4-8-2 was one of the few Great Northern classes after the turn of the century not to be equipped with the Belpaire firebox.
CLASS Q SANTA FE. Designed for heavy freight service, the 2-10-2 Santa Fe was known as a class Q engine on the Great Northern. No. 2100, a Q-1, was the first of 30 built for GN by Baldwin in 1923. Not shown in the builder's photo is the Franklin booster engine which was later applied by the railway. The conical boiler with Belpaire firebox and the Vanderbilt tender carrying 15,000 gallons of water and 25 tons of coal were intriguing features. Overall design was simple and clean, and is an excellent representation of heavy freight power of the period.
CLASS R SIMPLE ARTICULATED. The mountain-shrinking 2-8-8-0 was the all-time giant of Great Northern's steam fleet -- and largest locomotive in the world when Baldwin built the first of its class. Most of the big R's, however, came from the railway's own shops at Hillyard, Washington, and were the first steam locomotives built west of the Mississippi. Heaviest and most powerful of two sub-classes was the R-2, pictured here. Overall length, with tender, was 119 feet, 11 1/4 inches; total weight was nearly 530 tons Twenty-six of these monsters -- 10 R-1's and 16 R-2's were constructed in 1927-28.
CLASS S NORTHERN. The powerful and speedy Northern looked every bit the aristocrat that it was during the years of its pre-eminent association with the crack Empire Builder and Oriental Limited trains of the steam era. Baldwin built these 4-8-4's specifically for this service in 1929-30. In later life they powered GN fast freights on eastern districts, and were roller bearing equipped in 1945. (No. 2578, shown here, was an S-2.) Mounting of the air pump, bell and headlight on the smokebox front was one of the features that gave this engine its massive appearance.
CLASS Z 4-CYLINDER ARTICULATED. In 1937 the American Locomotive Company built a number of 4-Cylinder Articulated or Challenger type locomotives of the Northern Pacific Z-6 design for the Spokane, Portland and Seattle Railway. Great Northern acquired two of these 4-6-6-4's in 1939 retaining the Z-6 designation but renumbering them 4000 and 4001. By 1950 both locomotives had been resold. The simple articulated Z-6 weighed 310 tons and was equipped with three Nicholson syphons and a combustion chamber in an aeffort to increase the heating surfaces. The tender carried 20,000 gallons of water and 6,000 gallons of fuel oil.

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